Extrinsic and intrinsic disorders are two categories that can be used to classify primary insomnia. Problems with proper sleep hygiene, abuse of substances, and stress brought on by external circumstances are examples of extrinsic disorders. Insomnia caused by psychophysiological factors, primary or idiopathic insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome, shift work sleep disorder, and circadian rhythm disorders are all examples of intrinsic sleep disorders. Following exposure to a short-term stressor, psychophysiologic insomnia can occur. After a few nights of restless sleep, the patient begins to fixate on their inability to sleep, which only serves to exacerbate the underlying issue. A disorder known as advanced sleep phase syndrome and a disorder known as delayed sleep phase syndrome are both examples of abnormalities in the circadian rhythm. Patients who have advanced sleep phase disorder experience feelings of drowsiness in the early evening, have normal amounts of sleep, and then awaken very early in the morning. This condition is common in elderly people. These patients may have trouble staying awake until later in the evening, when it is more socially acceptable to do so. Patients who suffer from delayed sleep phase disorder, which is more prevalent in adolescents, may not feel sleepy until after midnight, sleep a normal amount of time, and awaken very late in the morning. This condition is more common in adolescents. As people get older, they spend less time in stages 3 and 4 of sleep and more time in stage 1, which leads to less restorative sleep. Additionally, nighttime awakenings become more frequent, leading to a more fragmented sleep pattern. Sleep disorders are consequently more prevalent in people of advanced age. Even though these shifts in sleep patterns could be to blame for what is perceived as insomnia, the majority of sleep problems experienced by elderly people are brought on by medical conditions or the increased use of medications that come with advancing age.
Sleep is disrupted by a variety of illnesses and conditions, including arthritis, allergies, congestive heart failure, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. Hormonal shifts are one of the most common causes of sleep disturbances in adults, and they are especially common in postpartum and perimenopausal women. Medications that are used to treat a wide variety of common conditions, including decongestants, beta-agonists, corticosteroids, beta-blockers, diuretics, antidepressants, and H-2 blockers, are known to disrupt sleep. Alternate medications should be considered in the event that it is suspected that one of the patient’s medications is causing a disruption in their sleep. In the event that there are no other treatment options available, the patient may be prescribed sleep aids as part of their treatment plan. Also check: journaling for mental health It is not always easy to tell the difference between primary sleep complaints and those that are associated with psychiatric disorders. Insomnia is a common symptom that can be caused by underlying mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, or panic disorder. According to the findings of a survey conducted on office-based physicians, thirty percent of patients who had been diagnosed with insomnia also had a diagnosis of depression. According to the findings of another study, approximately forty percent of patients who visit sleep specialists have a diagnosable mental health condition. In addition, between ten and fifteen percent of people who suffer from insomnia are also substance abusers. An in-depth examination of the patient’s sleep history is the first step in diagnosing and treating a sleep disorder. If at all possible, the patient’s bed partner should be questioned and asked to confirm the patient’s sleep-wake patterns. A history of the family might be helpful. More than thirty percent of people who suffer from insomnia also have a history of sleep disorders in their family, particularly among first-degree female relatives. Evaluation of underlying psychiatric disorders, current medication regimens, and associated symptoms that may coexist with an inability to sleep should be a part of the sleep history. It is also important to take note of any previous treatment attempts. Although the physical examination is less useful, it can be important to look for physical evidence of comorbidities such as allergies or obstructive sleep apnea. The use of polysomnography is not recommended unless there is a suspicion of a sleep-related breathing disorder. Patients who exhibit symptoms such as daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneic spells, in addition to having a body mass index of 35 or higher, have a greater than 70% chance of suffering from sleep apnea. Patients who exhibit these symptoms, as well as those who have been diagnosed with narcolepsy or sleepwalking, should be referred for polysomnography. In addition, patients who experience daytime sleepiness and whose jobs require them to be awake during the day, such as pilots or truck drivers, should have sleep studies. The treatment for insomnia should be individualised depending on the nature and severity of symptoms, and it should take place only after other potential causes have been considered, diagnosed, and treated. In comparison to pharmacologic treatment, nonpharmacologic treatment is both more cost-effective and associated with a lower risk of unwanted side effects. If the patient will benefit from the more rapid effect of drug therapies while simultaneously pursuing the longer-lasting effects of behaviour modifications, then pharmacologic treatment should be used. It is generally accepted that non-pharmacologic treatments for insomnia are successful if they either shorten the amount of time it takes for sleep to begin or extend the total amount of time spent sleeping by at least 30 minutes. The majority of treatment studies measure the effectiveness of the treatment by having patients keep sleep diaries. The total amount of time spent sleeping, the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, and the number of times one wakes up during the night are all used as criteria. An examination of stimulus control therapy, progressive relaxation, imagery training, and paradoxical intention was subjected to a meta-analysis, which yielded the conclusion that stimulus control therapy was the most effective form of behavioural therapy. A better alternative to the placebo is progressive muscle relaxation. A more recent meta-analysis compared the effects of behavioural therapy and pharmacotherapy and found no significant differences between the two types of treatment, with the exception of behavioural therapy’s greater ability to shorten the amount of time needed to fall asleep.